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关于“涉外律师事务所”的翻译问题

发布时间:2018/07/28

 

关于“涉外律师事务所”的翻译问题

(法律翻译切莫盲目逐字翻译)

 

法律英语中,有许多词语是长期以来形成的固定用语,有其固定的含义,不可逐字对译。先举例说明如下:

中译英

固定用语

逐字翻译

正确翻译

涉外律师事务所

foreign law firms foreign lawyer office(在中国设立的外国律师事务所)

foreign affairs lawyer office foreign-related law firms

宣判日

Day of Judgment Judgment Day(世界末日)

date of the pronouncement of judgment the date to pronounce a judgment

power of attorney 原意为授权委托书

 

 

法律英语中有许多词语是在几百年甚至上千年的历史过程中逐步形成的,形式与含义都比较固定。

foreign一词,虽然在诸如foreign policy(外交政策)foreign affairs(涉外事务)foreign trade(对外贸易)等词语中都有“涉外”的意思,但把“涉外律师事务所”译成foreign law firms 或者 foreign lawyer office 就显然不妥。按照WTO法律文件的标准译法,在中国设立的外国律师事务所才称为foreign law firms。而国内的涉外律师事务所应译为 foreign affairs lawyer office 或者 foreign-related law firms

同样的道理,foreign enterprises “外国企业”,而非涉外企业;foreign securities institutions “外国证券机构”,而非涉外证券机构;foreign award of arbitration “外国仲裁裁决”而非涉外仲裁裁决。

 

涉外公证foreign-related notarization 

英语中没有法律英语,但由于它在法律上的特殊用法和规律性,它逐渐成为技术英语、商务英语等学科。法律英语不同于French prdession(法律术语),而是跨越英语和法律的边界学科,所以有些人将法律英语翻译成“the - for - the”。许多地区,如上海,也为此设立了专门的培训机构。由于语言习惯的不同,长期以来在法律英语中具有可接受的使用效果,经常出现一些混淆或误用的词,有时在英汉翻译中出现一些有趣的现象。本文旨在通过对法律英语的非正式探讨,引起读者对法律英语的兴趣。中国、中国和中国作为属性的区别很大,这三个词可以作为属性,翻译成“中国”,但是它们的含义是非常不同的。例如,“中国律师事务所”的意思是“中国的律师事务所”,不一定是中国人。它应该包括一家已获准在中国设立的外国律师事务所(外国律师事务所)。如果你是指由中国律师成立的律师事务所,申请中国律师事务所。它在法律文件中非常特殊。在WTO的法律文件中,如“中国经济特征”(中国经济的特殊特征);“中国关税配额制度”(中国的贸易数据管理制度);“中方具体承诺”(中方具体承诺计划);“中国专利法”(中国专利法)。语言,几乎都是用中国而不是汉语。但说到“中国人”,应该用汉语。如“中方”;“中国”(中国公民);“中国政府”(中国政府);“中国国家律师注册”(中国律师)。当然,有些名词可以用汉语或汉语来表示。 There was no legal English in English, but because of its special usage and regularity in law, it gradually became a subject like technical English, business English and so on. Legal English is different from "French prdession" (legal terms), but across the borderline disciplines of English and law, so some people translate legal English into "English for the". Many regions, such as Shanghai, have also set up special training institutions for this purpose. Due to the different language habits, for a long time with acceptable usage effect in legal English some confusing or misused words often appear, some interesting phenomenon occurred sometimes in English Chinese translation. This article is intended to make some common discussions with readers in light of the casual way to arouse the readers' interest in legal english. China, China's, and Chinese differ greatly when used as attributes These three words can be used as attributes, translated into "China", but their meanings are very different. For example, "China law firms" means "law firms in China", not necessarily Chinese. It should include a foreign law firm (foreign law firms) that has been granted permission to establish in china. If you refer to a law firm established by a Chinese lawyer, apply Chinese law firms. It is very particular in legal documents. In the WTO legal documents, such as "Chinese economic characteristics" (the special characteristic of China's economy); "China tariff quota system" (China's TRO system); "specific commitments Chinese schedules" (China's Schedule of Specific (Commitments); "China patent law" (China's Patent Law). Language, almost all use China's instead of Chinese. But when it comes to "Chinese", Chinese should be used. Such as "Chinese" (Chinese side); "Chinese" (Chinese nationals); "Chinese government" (Chinese government); "Chinese National Lawyers regis-tered" (Chinese lawyer). Of course, some nouns can be preceded by either China or Chinese. 法律英语词语用法区别 英语中原本没有所谓法律英语,但由于有关法律方面的英语有其特殊的用法和规律,慢慢地就像科技英语、商业英语等一样,自成一门学科。法律英语不同于法言法语”(legal terms),而是跨越英语与法律之间的边缘学科,所以有人将法律英语译为English for the prdession。许多地区,比如上海等地,还为此成立专门的培训机构。由于英汉语言习惯的不同,加上长期以来约定俗成的用法的影响,法律英语中常常出现一些容易混淆或错用的词语,在中英互译中常会发生一些有趣的语言现象。本文就是想以比较轻松的漫谈方式,与读者作一些共同探讨,以引起广大读者对法律英语的兴趣。 China, China's Chinese作定语时大有区别 这三个词都可以作定语用,译成中国的,但其含义却有很大区别。如China law firms是指在中国的律师事务所,未必是中国人开的,它应包括获准在中国设立的外国律师事务所”(foreign law firms)。若指中国律师开的律师事务所,应用 Chinese law firms。在法律文书中,这很有讲究。在WTO法律文件中,如中国经济的特性”(the special characteristic of China's economy)中国的关税配额制度”(China's TRO system)中国的具体承诺减让表”((China's Schedule of Specific Commitments)中国专利法”(China's Patent Law)等用语中,几乎都用China's而不用Chinese。但着重中国人的意义时,应该用 Chinese。如中方”(Chinese side)中国人”(Chinese nationals)中国政府”(Chinese government)中国执业律师”(Chinese national regis-tered lawyers)。 当然,有些名词前面用ChinaChinese都可以。如 Chinese vaish()Chinese ink(),但绝大多数都有固定搭配,应多查词典,不宜随便更动。如China Sea(中国海)Chinatown(华人区、唐人街)China teas(中国茶)Chinese cabbage(白菜)Chinese lantem(灯笼)等等均不可随便换用。 同一个英语动词却有两个截然相反的词义 同一个英语动词,在法律英语中,有时竟有两种几乎完全相反的含义,例如 discharge是法律英语中常见常用的一个词,它可作履行解,也可作撤销解,而这两个意思,在中文里几乎是完全相反的。因此翻译或运用它时必须特别当心。 如discharge a contract履行合同,不是撤销合同discharge a bankrupt免除破产人的责任,不是履行破产人的责任discharge a burden of proof履行举证责任,不是撤销或免除举证责任discharge one's liabilities清偿某人的债务,而不是撤销某人的债务;如说 The judge discharged the jury.这是说法官解除了该陪审员的职务,而不是该法官履行了陪审员的职务。 怎样翻译他已与妻子离婚了”? 你可能将它译为He has divorced with his wife。如果这样,你就错了。因为作动词用时,divorce使离婚,常用于被动语态,常用的搭配是to be divorced from sb。因此本句应译成 He has been divorced from his wife。当然,它也可以用主动语态,译作 He has divorced his wife。此时,就不必加from了。切不可按汉语习惯加上with之类的介词。下面一些用法,粗看起来好像不大对头,实际上却都是非常地道的英语: Did Mr. Hill divorce his wife or did his wife divorce him? 是希尔先生要与妻子离 婚还是他的妻子要与他离婚? The judge divorced them.法官让他们离婚了。(而不是法官与他们离婚) The court divorced Mr. and Mrs. Jones. 法庭给琼斯夫妇离了婚。 谁是谁非:ouster, ejection, ejedctmenteviction 这几个词都可以译作剥夺驱逐撵出。但所用的场合完全不同,甚至相反。ouster是指合法占有人的权利被非法

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